Category Archives: medicine

Why We Won’t Use Neem Oil As a Natural Preservative

Neem oil is a natural product derived from the seeds and fruit of the evergreen neem tree. It is used in over a hundred pesticide products and has important applications in organic farming and medicines. It has been used as a pesticide for hundreds of years and is considered to be safe (1).

These days, neem oil is being touted as a natural alternative to synthetic preservatives.

Neem oil is a mixture of components and not a pure essential oil. Azadirachtin is the active component responsible for repelling and killing pests. The remaining components include fatty acids, essential oils, and other substances. Components of neem oil can also be found in other products such as toothpaste, cosmetics, soaps, pet shampoos, supplements, and medicine.

Natural Preservatives

Most cosmetics include water as an ingredient (for emulsifying); therefore, preservatives are needed to prevent spoilage and the growth of bacteria.

If you have ever purchased an all-natural, preservative-free beauty product such as a face cream and discovered a “funky smell” before it was completely used up it means the product spoiled (i.e., contaminated by yeast, mold, bacteria or fungi). Unfortunately, these products produce natural sugars in a moist environment–the perfect breeding ground (complete with food source) for multiplying microbes. A product can look and smell just fine and still be contaminated. If the product is truly all-natural and preservative-free, it needs to be treated like food: made fresh in small batches and refrigerated (and remember, they will expire).

Products made with natural preservatives fair a bit better in terms of shelf life if used within 30 days after opening, but you might want to ask the question: how good are natural preservatives vs. synthetic preservatives at controlling and killing off any invaders to protect your product (and you)? Therefore, while there are effective, naturally derived preservatives, some can be weakened by exposure to air and water and thus cannot provide the same broad spectrum protection as synthetic preservatives.

Neem Oil as a Natural Preservative

When neem oil is used as a preservative, it functions as an antiseptic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-parasitic. Sounds pretty good, doesn’t it? And it’s used as a pesticide so it must be effective, right? (Although I doubt that argument would work in favor of synthetic preservatives!) Neem oil is effective at keeping oils from going rancid, but it doesn’t do as well protecting the product from bacteria and yeast because it is not a broad spectrum preservative. And it doesn’t seem to like water either. Bad news for technical managers and natural health promoters who want neem oil used as a preservative in water-containing cosmetics instead of the much more effective (and therefore safer) synthetic preservatives available for this purpose, such as Neolone 950. Strict regulations require such preservatives in order to kill all common pathogens. (See for an excellent article on this matter.)

The half-life of neem oil in water is somewhere between one hour and four days. “Half-life” means that the concentration decreases by 50% in …

Good Health Practices

Good Heath is fundamentally the well being of life itself, it masters all the process of ones mind and occupies a great deal of prevention and awareness in regard to the many treats the human body may incur. The main aim of this information is to promote good health and to regard it as an achievement.


People do not always consider Good Health in a positive way, but they tend to think mainly about curing people who are either ill or suffering from a mental problem, but there are signs that more emphasis is being placed on preventive medicine – “prevention is better than curative medicine as practiced in hospitals is becoming more and more expensive. This alone is raising questions as to whether, we would produce better results for the community as a whole.

History confirms the important contribution which preventive medicine has made to Good Health. Thus as the president of New Zea land Medicak Association said, “the improvement of life expectancy in our country has been as a result of improvement in sanitation and housing, more due to plumbers and builders than doctors. to improvements in food, clothing and conditions of work and to treatment of episodic diseases”

what is really required is a well balanced integrates programmes of preventive and curative medicine, designed to meet the needs of an area at a given time, and for the programmmes to be flexible i.e for changes to be made in it as the needs change.


Before an effective programme can be made, there must be an understanding of traditional background of the people to be served: their economic situation, family structure, religion, interest and problems must be known. it should be recognized that changes which are advocated may not make sense to them. they can not be expected suddenly to change their whole outlook to accord with the ideas of modern medicine. these ideas have to compete with traditional ideas and rural people, especially, are not sure that scientific medicine can diagnose and treat all kinds of illness.

In other words, good health services cannot be forced upon an unwilling community. so, health workers should use the cures which can be achieved by drugs and survey to increase the peoples confidence and thereby lead to requests for further curative services.

This in turn, will help to win the peoples acceptance of preventive services.

Not only do preventive and curative services form part of one whole, in practice there is no dividing line between them. thus, hospitals may be mainly engaged on curative work, but their associated health centers and clinics will be engaged in preventive work in the locality.

Indeed a hospital usually provides the base for preventive work in the locality and also provide facilities for training the staff. in short, the hospital will be organized to serve the community in all aspects of health care,socially as well as medically.

It is sometimes thought that if only sufficient preventive work were …

Hypertension and High Blood Pressure Medicine Solutions

Hypertension, more commonly known as high blood pressure, affects approximately 1/3 of all Americans. Unknowingly, many people with the disease are essentially ticking time bombs waiting to explode. High Blood Pressure is also referred to as the silent killer. Although most diseases and illnesses manifesting symptoms, people often find the problem during a routine check in the doctor’s office, or after disaster strikes. Hypertension frequently causes serious, potentially life-threatening health problems; so, various medicines have been developed to keep the beastly disease under control.

High blood pressure can seriously damage a person’s arteries. Due to periods of excessive force, over time the artery walls are weakened, possibly resulting in aneurysms. Basically, fragile balloon-like areas may develop. Thus, an individual may die, if the artery pops. For a fortunate few, aneurysms are discovered before time runs out. However, the odds are not in the patient’s favor.

Also, odds are not in the patient’s favor when hypertension results in brain damage. Most Americans know someone who has suffered a stroke. Sometimes, forewarning signs, like distorted vision, slurred speech, or dizziness give an individual time to reach the emergency room for immediate treatment; usually, a stroke causes devastating health problems or death. For the people fortunate enough to survive, ambulation, speech, and even the ability to eat are some of the long-lasting effects. The patient then faces months, or years, of extensive therapy attempting to regain former skills most people take for granted. Plus, he/she has an increased probability of subsequent strokes.

In addition to strokes, probably the most common health risk of hypertension is a heart attack. As excessive pressure weakens the heart muscle, a person is at risk for coronary artery disease, an enlarged heart, and eventual heart failure. Sadly, high blood pressure is often diagnosed after the diseased heart has surrendered to the illness. Therefore, the best preventative measures against hypertension are periodic pressure checks, and high blood pressure medicine to manage the condition before it becomes a huge problem.

Although a myriad of medicines are available, doctors may decide what treatment is best based upon the patient’s age, ethnicity, other medications, and allergies. All of the issues may potentially determine how an individual will react to high blood pressure medicine. Nevertheless, beta-blockers have been commonly used, in the past, to control hypertension: “These slow down the heart, reducing the amount of work that it has to do, and lowers an important hormone. This opens the blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to work”. Today, due to the adverse side effects of sleepiness and cold hands, the medication is infrequently prescribed to lower blood pressure.

In tandem with other blood pressure medicines, diuretics (water tablets) are used to release excess salt and water in the body. For some, water tablets will initially lower an individual’s pressure. However, the side effect can be a little disconcerting. Until a patient’s body is regulated, frequent trips to the restroom are a must. Therefore, patients are instructed to take the medication at …

Medicine and Hypnosis. Hypnotherapy – Healing Emotionally and Physically from the Inside Out

More and more doctors now realize that hypnosis is powerful medicine.
Why this is and how it happens is still something of a mystery, but
science is proving that hypnosis can improve your health in amazing
ways. It can help relieve pain, make breathing easier for people
with respiratory illnesses, aid with gastrointestinal ailments and
relieve depression just to name a few. The most astonishing evidence
is coming from research on healing.

In a pilot study published in 1999, Harvard University psychologist
Carol Ginandes, Ph.D., shown that hypnosis can help broken bones
heal faster and, in a follow-up experiment published in 2000,
Ginandes and her research team discovered that women who had breast
reduction surgery recovered far more quickly after undergoing

It is speculated that hypnosis alters the levels of certain chemicals
found in the brain that influence the nervous system, hormone
production, and the immune system. It appears that hypnosis affects
how genes in cells express themselves, turning some functions on and
others off. Studies using brain scans and other imaging technology
are providing explanations as to how and why hypnosis works in
helping the body heal itself.

Hypnotherapy uses relaxation techniques such as deep breathing,
imagery, visualization and positive suggestions. Clients often say
to me that they experience a feeling of peacefulness and euphoria yet
are fully aware during a session. This is similar to what is
experienced during meditation. As David Spiegel, director of the
psychosocial treatment laboratory at Stanford University School of
Medicine and coauthor of Trance & Treatment: Clinical Uses of
Hypnosis (American Psychiatric Publishing) explains, there is "some
overlap with meditation "however," hypnosis focuses on the ability to
do something for a specific purpose. "And this is how hypnosis
achieves its strength, by using positive statements and suggestions
while a client is in a fully relaxed state. This enables the client
to more easily focus on past problematic patterns or behaviors and it
This ability to more easily focus that results in the desired
change. A sort of spring cleaning for the mind. Working from the
inside out, releasing negative thoughts, perceptions and behaviors
and replacing them with the positive thoughts and suggestions that
the client desires.

It is this technique of focusing and strengthening willpower that is
responsible for hypnotherapy's high success rate, particularly for
clients who want to lose weight or quit smoking. A University of
Connecticut review of six weigh-loss studies found that 70 percent of
study participants rated hypnosis better than cognitive therapy

Arreed Barabasz, director of the laboratory of hypnosis research at
Washington State University in Pullman and coauthor of
Hypnotherapeutic Techniques (Brunner-Routledge) agreements. The
suggestions, however, you must not emphasize what you are against, but
rather stress the positive goals and imagery that you are seeking.
For the client who wishes to quit smoking, positive suggestions about
their body and visualizing their lungs becoming clear and free of
smoke as well as instilling images of the client happy, healthy and
smoke free are the types of …

Momordica Charantia and Diabetes Control (Facts about Bitter Melon)

Doctors and researchers have been studying the relationship between momordica charantia and diabetes control for many years. Since it is eaten fairly commonly in Asia, Africa, South America and the Caribbean, one medical concern has been over possible momordica charantia side effects. Here, we provide a description of the plant and an overview of its historical and modern day uses, as well as highlights of research about momordica charantia and diabetes.

Momordica charantia, commonly known as Bitter melon, bitter gourd or Karela, is a vegetable that grows on a vine and is similar looking, at least on the outside, to a cucumber. The flavor, as the common names imply, is very bitter, becoming more so as the fruit ripens and eventually becoming impossible to eat.

In China, it is sometimes used as an ingredient in stir fries, soups and teas. In Pakistan and India, it is prepared with potatoes and served with yogurt or stuffed with spices and fried in oil. In the Philippines, where the shoots and leaves are used for salad greens and the melon is served in various dishes, it is known as ampalaya. Also, in the Philippines, bitter melon tea is used among the poor for controlling high blood sugar levels and diabetes.

The understanding that there was a relationship between momordica charantia and diabetes control likely began with an ancient system of medicine known as Ayurvedic. This system of medicine dates back to at least 1000BC and is widely practiced throughout much of India today. Doctors of Ayurvedic Medicine take a holistic approach to the treatment of all diseases, focusing on mind, body and spirit, rather than the body alone. Thus, they do not consider momordica charantia a “cure” for diabetes, but simply one element used in treating the disease and its complications.

In any system of medicine, it is important that doctors and patients discuss diet and the use of over the counter remedies. Concerns over momordica charantia side effects are due largely to a lack of communication between many doctors and their patients. Also, there is a lack of understanding about natural remedies for diseases, i.e. momordica charantia and diabetes control.

Published Research

Over the years, researchers studying the relationship between momordica charantia and diabetes, blood sugar levels, glucose tolerance, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, etc. have noted the following:

o In 1981, “These results show that karela improves glucose tolerance in diabetes,” was published in the British Medical Journal.

o In 1981, in the Journal of Natural Products, “A hypoglycemic peptide, polypeptide-p, has been isolated from fruit, seeds and tissue of momordica charantia…is a very effective hypoglycemic agent when administered subcutaneously to gerbils, langurs and humans.”

o In 1985, at the Foundation for Diabetes Research in Edinburgh, it was found that the only momordica charantia side effects in normal mice were improved glucose tolerance. In diabetic mice, “the level of hyperglycemia was reduced by 50% after 5 hours.

o In 1986, in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, “The fruit juice of Momordica charantia was found to …

Electronic Nebulizer – Simple to Handle, Easy to Clean

An electronic nebulizer is like any other nebulizer used to convert the medicine into mist form so that it directly reaches the lungs for quick recovery. They are not only used by humans but it comes handy to treat animals from influenza and other kinds of respiratory issues. These nebulizers depend on membrane vibration to produce aerosol. Since the machine depends on vibration, air compressors are not required, thereby making the nebulizers compact and affordable. Electronic nebulizers are available in all leading medical supply stores. Online stores offer better deals when compared to offline stores. Browse alphabetically to catch the best deals.

Ultrasonic nebulizer is also a kind of electronic nebulizer as they use sound waves to convert liquid medication into mist for easy inhaling. A crystal is placed inside the machine that generates sound and the conversion process takes place. A valve is also present in some models to control the flow of the mist. Ultrasonic nebulizer is not capable of handling all types of medicines. Another major application of ultrasonic nebulizer is that it is used in humidifier apparatus that helps to spray water particles to dampen dry buildings. Ultrasonic nebulizer is more popular because of its various applications. It is simple to use and easy to clean.

Electronic nebulizer was invented in the year 1930 and it was initially called a Pneumostat. This machine converted liquid medicine into aerosol using an electrical compressor. When these electronic nebulizers were new to the market they were priced high and since it was used only by selected few while most of the users preferred hand driven nebulizer called the Park-Davis Glaseptic. It was only in the year 1964 Ultrasonic wave nebulizers were introduced. They were far more efficient and user friendly that most of them turned toward ultrasonic nebulizers. With the passage of time more advanced electronic nebulizers have replaced the traditional models.

Electronic Vibrating Mesh Technology or VMT is the latest in the nebulizer world. They produce dense medicated aerosol by moving through a metal alloy mesh. VMT is lightweight and compact and is absolutely portable. In this wonder machine around 98 percent of the medication is delivered. This means there is very minimal waste of the medicines. The adapters are compatible with any masks and T-piece. The head of the unit can be removed easily for cleaning purposes. Electronic Nebulizer with VMT comes with a main power unit, medication cup, mesh cap, mask adapter, mouth piece, instructional video and a carry case. This nebulizer weighs just 6oz. The product comes with a two years limited warranty. …

Lexapro – A Medicine That Helps Control Depression

Lexapro is generally regarded as the most effective and well-tolerated prescription medication that plays a significant part in improving the quality and enjoyment of life for adults who are living with depression.

As you already know, depression is a deadly disorder that affects millions of Americans each year. It arises because of imbalance of few chemicals in the brain. These chemicals are known as neurotransmitters.

Symptoms of anxiety are normally associated with depression. If you are suffering from depression not only you will be fearful of certain situations but physical symptoms such as tension, sweating, or increased pulse rate would also make their presence felt.

Coming to Lexapro, it is a member of the group of prescription drugs known as selective serotonin in medical parlance. According to one study, Lexapro has been prescribed to over 15 million patients in the United States. By the way, Lexapro is the fastest-growing medicine of its kind. The best part about Lexapro is that if you take just one 10 mg tablet a day, it can tremendously improve the symptoms of depression and anxiety for lots of patients in the initial week. What's more, despite being a powerful medicine, Lexapro is well tolerated.

According to study, which was implemented on patients who were taking 10-mg a day of Lexapro, lots of people were of the opinion that not only there is improvement in terms of symptom control but also there is no side effect to be worried of. You may ask: Why Lexapro is so effective? Fact remains that Lexapro clicks because it restore the brain's chemical balance, which in turn leads to increase in the supply of serotonin. Talking about serotonin, it is a substance that resides in the brain and has a significant bearing in influencing mood.

You can take Lexapro daily along with a wide array of other medicines. But before that it is recommended that you consult your doctor and clearly tell them what prescription medines or as a matter of fact over-the-counter remedies you take on a regular basis. As already mentioned, Lexapro is well tolerated. Side effects are also minimal and with the passage of time and continued treatment it goes away.

The most common side effects associated with Lexapro is nausea, insomnia, ejaculation disorder, somnolence, increased sweating, fatigue, anorgasmia and decreased libido.

There is no hiding the fact that Lexapro has proved to be an effective treatment for depression. Lots of controlled studies are of the view that Lexapro play a pivotal part in improving the symptoms of depression. It just takes around 15 days for Lexapro to start making its presence felt. According to recent controlled study, it has come into notice that the control group may get no treatment, standard treatment, or place of major depressive disorder. This can be termed as a physician's definition for a specific kind of depression.

It is worth remembering that a person who suffers from a major depressive disorder must have either depressed mood or in some cases a …

Penis Health Benefits of Vitamin E – The Secret to a Smooth Shaft

Sexual health is an important part of a man’s overall health and wellness, and a healthy penis is obviously a key player in this respect. Everyone knows that to keep the body healthy, it is important to work out, eat right, take vitamins, get plenty of rest, avoid smoking, manage stress and limit alcohol intake – but few men take the time to give their penis a little extra TLC. Proper penis health care should be integrated into the daily routine of every man; the use of a penis vitamin creme containing Vitamin E is one way to improve the skin quality and health of the penis.

What are the Health Benefits of Vitamin E?

Vitamin E has many health boosting properties, one of which being its antioxidant function – antioxidants fight free radicals in the body which can cause cancer, as well as signs of premature aging. Vitamin E also reduces cholesterol in the body by stopping cholesterol from being changed to plaque. Plaque is responsible for narrowing the blood vessels and damaging cardiovascular health, which can lead to coronary artery disease. Vitamin E also reduces joint inflammation caused by arthritis, boosts immune functioning, and works with other essential nutrients to regulate hormones in the body. Vitamin E is an especially important nutrient for skin care, as it helps retain moisture, prevents skin dryness and can help protect the skin from UV rays.

What are the Penis Benefits of Vitamin E?

Vitamin E carries with it several penis-specific benefits. Vitamin E can improve the quality and appearance of the penis skin as it penetrates the skin cells, soothing irritation while moisturizing, smoothing and revitalizing the skin on contact. Vitamin E is also beneficial for men suffering from Peyronie’s disease – a condition in which the penis painfully curves due to scar tissue – vitamin E can help improve existing symptoms of Peryonie’s disease and may have preventative properties to keep the penis tissue healthy and straight. It can also prevent shortening of the penis tissue caused by Peyronie’s. Vitamin E increases blood flow throughout the body, all the way to those tiny blood vessels that make up the penis, this speeds healing and helps maintain the health of the penis tissue.

Sources of Vitamin E

There are many food sources that contain Vitamin E. The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine recommend adults intake 15 mg of Vitamin E daily. To ensure the daily dose is met, load up on the following foods:

  • Wheat germ oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil and palm oil
  • Nuts, almonds, hazelnuts
  • Spinach, collard greens, dandelion greens
  • Avocados, asparagus, broccoli, beets, turnips, tomatoes, sweet potatoes pumpkin
  • Mangoes, papayas, kiwi

For individuals who aren’t the biggest fans of fruits and veggies, vitamin E can be found in over the counter daily multivitamins, or as a vitamin E only supplement.

Maintaining Penis Health

While vitamin E can be taken in pill form to reach the recommended daily intake, to achieve the best result for …

Acne – Dermatologists

Dermatologists are specialists who treat disorders of the skin. But they don’t just treat skin problems: they treat health problems of the hair and nail as wells. They are full-fledged medical doctors trained to diagnose and treat diseases and disorders of the skin, hair and nails.The most common skin disease that dermatologists treat is acne. Acne is a skin condition that nearly all people have to contend with at some point during their teen years. The cases of acne vary from mild (the occasional pimple or zit) all the way to very severe (which consists of deep acne lesions and often extensive scarring). Acne is caused by the overproduction of oil from the hair follicles sebaceous glands, which combines with dead cells to clog pores. This can lead to whiteheads, blackheads, pustules and papules, or in the most severe cases, cysts.Most acne cases don’t require the services of a dermatologist, as a healthy skin care regimen and over the counter medications can control it. But for those persistent, moderate to severe cases, a dermatologist is almost always needed. These doctors can prescribe stronger topical medications as well as oral antibiotics, to help get a handle on difficult cases.

They can also provide the medical means by which acne scars are reduced or eliminated.Dermatologists also diagnose and treat other skin disorders such as skin cancer. Doctors will examine suspected skin cancer sites on the body and if need be, perform a biopsy to verify cancer’s presence. There are a variety of types of skin cancer of different degrees of seriousness. Needless to say, a doctor should immediately examine any person who suspects that he or she may have some form of skin cancer.Psoriasis is another skin ailment treated by these doctors. This is a chronic red scaly, sometimes itchy rash that affects a fairly large segment of the population. It can range in severity from barely noticeable, to needing hospitalization. Aside from the skin rash, a person may experience some degree of pain in various joints – which can be debilitating. It is thought that the immune system is involved in causing psoriasis, though this is not certain. There does seem to be a genetic predisposition to this disease. While there is no cure for it there are effective treatments that a dermatologist can provide after diagnosis.

Dermatologists also treat warts. These rough skin tumor-like growths can appear anywhere (but usually on the hands and feet), and are caused by viruses. Some warts go away by themselves but others can persist for many years. Dermatologists treat warts in a variety of ways. One option is to wait and see if it goes away on it’s own. And they can use salicylic acid in liquid form or in a patch. Often, this will gradually make the wart disappear. They can also freeze it, gently, over a period of time. A dermatologist can also use surgery, lasers, and chemical cautery to get rid of them.Dermatologists also treat patients to remove their scars. They …

Ayurvedic Herbs and Their Uses in Ayurvedic Medicine

Ayurvedic Herbs Can Help with Many Health Issues

Ayurvedic herbs are a part of holistic and alternative treatments many use to cleanse the body from the inside out. Such herbs are natural herbs that can be used to treat the smallest inconvenience or help alleviate symptoms of larger health disorders. There are many types of these India’s medicinal herbs so it is useful to know what some of them are and what they specifically treat. You should note that some

Ayurvedic medicine are still labeled under dietary supplements but contain the ingredients used to treat the body for many millennia.

In cases such as asthma, cold and bronchial congestion, different ayurvedic herbs are prescribed. Use churnas – similar to curry – to sprinkle over your food. Different churnas balance different elements in the body. Ayurveda divides the body into 3 dosahas, or biological energies: Vata (air), Kapha (earth and water) and Pitta (fire). Vata churnas are warming, Pitta churnas are cooling and Kapha churnas are mildly hot and spicy.

Ayurvedic teas also work for individual balancing, but there are also Vata-Pitta-Kapha teas for all body types. Narayana oil is joint massage oil that alleviates discomfort from all types of conditions including arthritis, backache, fibromyalgia, gout, hip pain, muscle cramps, sciatica and sprains. Brahmi hair oil not only helps with dandruff, dry hair, itchy scalp and split ends, but also promotes mental health by improving emotional disturbances, concentration, mental imbalance, poor memory and senility.

For instance, Pushkaramula Rasayana can be used to deal with coughing, chest tightening and wheezing. Not only does this supplement reduce phlegm and sneezing, but it also supports better digestion and lymphatic cleansing. It is usually found in foods such ghee, honey and rice syrup base with some specific herbs and spices that are added to it. The botanical ingredients of Pushkaramula Rasayana include amalaki fruit, bhibitaki, elecampane root, haritaki fruit, kapikachu, licorice, mullein herb, pippali, shilajit and tulasi from standardized extracts and ajwan, black pepper, cardamom seed, clove, cubeb berry, ginger root, manna, myrrh, thyme and turmeric.

Mullein Rasayana also supports bronchi, immune system, mucus membrane and respiratory health. This supplement reduces sneezing, mucus buildup and cough while cleansing the bronchi and lymphatic system. This, too, comes in an edible form of 22 herbs and spices in ghee, honey and rice syrup base. The botanical ingredients include standardized extracts of amalaki fruit, ashwagandha root, bayberry, bhibitaki, boswellia serrata, licorice, mullein, shatavari, shilajit and tulasi and herbal powders like ajwan, black pepper, cardamom seed, cinnamon, clove, cubeb, fenugreek, ginger, Irish moss, myrrh and turmeric.

The cold and congestion supplement Pippali Rasayana is similar in that it promotes lung health as it detoxifies the lungs by liquefying phlegm to allow it to leave the respiratory tract. It reduces congestion, coughing and nausea and improves appetite, circulation, digestion and metabolism. The standardized extracts consist of bayberry, clove, elecampane, gotu kola, licorice root, pippali, sage herb and tulasi while the herbal powders consist of ajwan seed, bambomanna, cardamom, cinnamon bark, …